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Tolerance Data 2012 Greek lenchug




2 greek download. High or low tolerance to stimulants?. Four decades of tolerance to stimulants. Neuropsychopharmacology 26 (2005) 859-869. Pavlov, A. (1921). Conditioned reflexes and the law of effect. Reading, MA. Introduction In spite of the relative ease of obtaining tolerance data, several problems with human use of amphetamines have been raised. After decades of research, the topic has been the subject of a recent series of issues of the American Journal of Psychiatry. In this study, we analyze tolerance data for individuals involved in an unstructured, therapeutic setting, who have had a history of amphetamine abuse. Despite the possible drawbacks to such data, tolerance is a scientifically well-accepted indicator of medical fitness to use drugs, even for some recently approved drugs for the first time. In the past few years, tolerance has been used to understand stimulant abuse and drug dependence as a condition in its own right, in the light of physiological and social concomitants. For instance, it has been found that in cocaine users, symptoms of stress are often linked to the onset and evolution of tolerance to the effects of the drug. In addition, tolerance could play an important role in explaining individual differences in cocaine self-administration. The present study analyzes tolerance in a group of patients with a history of amphetamine abuse, who were treated in a methadone maintenance program. We find that the evolution of tolerance to stimulants is similar to that found for other substances, and that tolerance development could be the result of an adaptation process to overcome amphetamine's stimulant properties, and its rewarding effects, and not an addiction process. Subjects and Methods This study was part of a project on methadone maintenance (MAT). It was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University of Antwerp, and participants gave their informed consent. From September 2003 to January 2004, patients, who had reported to the outpatient MAT clinic, participated in this tolerance study. They had a history of amphetamine abuse. The methadone dose was kept stable at 60 mg/day during the first month and increased gradually according to patient tolerance, up to the stable dose of 120 mg/day. Tolerance data were available for 86 patients. Patients were requested to participate on a single occasion in order to reduce variability. For each patient, tolerance was determined by the amount of increase in dose required before an increase in subjective or objective effects. Results The mean age of



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Tolerance Data 2012 Greek lenchug
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